Communication in Physical Sciences https://www.journalcps.com/index.php/volumes <p>Communication in physical Science is a peer reviewed journal published by Faculty of Physical Sciences, University of Nigeria]- Formerly Journal of Physical Sciences</p> en-US okon.nnabuk@unn.edu.ng (Prof Nnabuk Okon Eddy) uchechukwu.okoro@unn.edu.ng (Prof. U.C. Okoro) Fri, 01 Mar 2024 07:21:33 +0000 OJS 3.2.1.2 http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss 60 Electrical Resistivity Tomography Investigation of Groundwater Contamination Pathway at Ahmadu Bello University Sewage Treatment Site https://www.journalcps.com/index.php/volumes/article/view/472 <p><strong><em>Communication in Physical Sciences, 2024, 11(1): 136-148</em></strong></p> <p><strong>Authors: Mahmood Umar<sup>*</sup>, </strong><strong>Bala Balarabe, Z</strong><strong>ubairu Ahmed, Abdullahi Mohammed Wanzan and Musa Sa’adu&nbsp; </strong></p> <p><strong><em>Received: 18 October 2023/Accepted: 20 March 2024</em></strong></p> <p>The Two-dimensional electrical resistivity survey using Schlumberger array at 5m electrode spacing was carried out along three profiles at the Ahmadu Bello University sewage treatment site. The study aims to investigate the possible fracture and permeable zones that serve as the pathways for groundwater contamination. The ABEM SAS4000 terrameter was used in data collection. The field data obtained has been analyzed using RES2DIV inversion software which gives an automatic interpretation of apparent resistivity. The geologic sequence beneath the study area is composed of topsoil, weathered basement and fracture basement layers. The resistivity value of the first layers ranges from 15Ωm to 58Ωm, 12Ωm to 40Ωm and 9Ωm to 14Ωm. The low resistivity variations in the topsoil identify the presence of contaminated plume zones in the layer. However, the fracture basement underlying the weathered basement shows lateral variation in the basement resistivity. The result shows that the contaminated plume zones has the tendency to contaminate the groundwater.</p> Mahmood Umar, Bala Balarabe, Zubairu Ahmed, Abdullahi Mohammed Wanzan, Musa Sa’adu Copyright (c) 2024 Journal and Author https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://www.journalcps.com/index.php/volumes/article/view/472 Fri, 29 Mar 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Electrical Resistivity Tomography Investigation of Groundwater Contamination Pathway at Ahmadu Bello University Sewage Treatment Site https://www.journalcps.com/index.php/volumes/article/view/470 <p><strong>Communication in Physical Sciences, 2024, 11(1): 136-148</strong></p> <p><strong>Authors: Mahmood Umar<sup>*</sup>, </strong><strong>Bala Balarabe, Z</strong><strong>ubairu Ahmed, Abdullahi Mohammed Wanzan and Musa Sa’adu&nbsp; </strong></p> <p><strong><em>Received: 18 October 2023/Accepted: 20 March 2024</em></strong></p> <p>The Two-dimensional electrical resistivity survey using Schlumberger array at 5m electrode spacing was carried out along three profiles at the Ahmadu Bello University sewage treatment site. The study aims to investigate the possible fracture and permeable zones that serve as the pathways for groundwater contamination. The ABEM SAS4000 terrameter was used in data collection. The field data obtained has been analyzed using RES2DIV inversion software which gives an automatic interpretation of apparent resistivity. The geologic sequence beneath the study area is composed of topsoil, weathered basement and fracture basement layers. The resistivity value of the first layers ranges from 15Ωm to 58Ωm, 12Ωm to 40Ωm and 9Ωm to 14Ωm. The low resistivity variations in the topsoil identify the presence of contaminated plume zones in the layer. However, the fracture basement underlying the weathered basement shows lateral variation in the basement resistivity. The result shows that the contaminated plume zones has the tendency to contaminate the groundwater.</p> Mahmood Umar, Bala Balarabe, Zubairu Ahmed, Abdullahi Mohammed Wanzan, Musa Sa’adu Copyright (c) 2024 Journal and Author https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://www.journalcps.com/index.php/volumes/article/view/470 Fri, 29 Mar 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Geophysical Investigation of Subsurface Characteristics in Parts of Niger Delta Basin and its Geo-technical Implications: A Case Study of Amuzi-Obowo Area of Imo State, Southern Nigeria. https://www.journalcps.com/index.php/volumes/article/view/467 <p><strong>Communication in Physical Sciences, 2024, 11(1): 91-111</strong></p> <p><strong>Authors: Jamike Danny Mmeka,&nbsp; Godwill Uwadinachi Chukwu, &nbsp;Chukwunenyoke Amos-Uhegbu<sup>*</sup>&nbsp; Paul Igienekpeme Aigba, and&nbsp; Chukwudike Dandy Akoma</strong></p> <p><strong><em>Received: 02 December&nbsp; 2023/Accepted: 26 March 2024</em></strong></p> <p>The geophysical investigation of the subsurface characteristics in the Amuzi-Obowo area of Imo state, implored the use of the Vertical Electrical Sounding technique of the electrical resistivity method that revealed the existence of seven geoelectric layers with resistivity ranging from 14.2 Ωm (the 3<sup>rd</sup> layer of VES 12 ) to 240,000 Ωm (the 7<sup>th</sup> layer of VES 3).; Results show that the topsoils are made up of six-layer deposits consisting of fine-grained sand, medium-grained sand, coarse-grained sand, silt, clayey-silt and clay layer deposits with a range of resistivity of 36.6 Ωm (VES 8 ) to 3,321 Ωm (VES 3). The near-surface layer underneath the topsoil consists essentially of sandstone, fine-grained sand, medium-grained sand, coarse-grained sand, and silt. The depth to the layer ranges from 8m (VES 2) to 2.93m (VES 10), with thickness ranging from 0.14 to 2.46m. The incessant cracking of walls of buildings and falling of electric poles in some parts of the study area have been attributed to the nature of the low-resistivity units deduced as clay deposits underlying some of the very thin 2<sup>nd</sup> (near-surface) layers. Locations for only the construction of small structures were highlighted, and the locations not suitable for small structures were highlighted. It was concluded that medium to massive engineering structures can be placed anywhere in the study &nbsp;area except at the location&nbsp; of VES 2 , but for massive structures, the locations of VES&nbsp; 2, 5 ,8 10, 11 and 12 should be given further engineering considerations because of the relatively shallow depth of the underlying clay layers.</p> Jamike Danny Mmeka, Godwill Uwadinachi Chukwu, Chukwunenyoke Amos-Uhegbu, Paul Igienekpeme Aigba, Chukwudike Dandy Akoma Copyright (c) 2024 Journal and Author https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://www.journalcps.com/index.php/volumes/article/view/467 Sat, 30 Mar 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Closed Form Solutions of a Re-Insurer’s Surplus, Stochastic and Time-Dependent Investment Returns with Random Parameters https://www.journalcps.com/index.php/volumes/article/view/464 <p><strong>Communication in Physical Sciences, 2024, 11(1):76-90</strong></p> <p><strong>Authors: Promise A. Azor, <sup>*</sup>Edikan E. Akpanibah and Okechukwu I. Edozieunor</strong></p> <p><strong><em>Received: 18 October 2023/Accepted: 20 March 2024</em></strong></p> <p>One of the challenges faced by insurance companies is the ability to manage the risk of their client (policyholders) and pay their claims whenever the need arises; hence there is a need to study the portfolio of a reinsurer which is a combination of his surplus and invested funds in the financial market. To achieve this, we consider cases where the expected rates of return of the risky asset are linear and quadratic. Ito’s lemma, maximum principle and variable separation technique were used in solving for the closed-form solutions of the prices of the risky assets for all considered cases. Similarly, the closed-form solutions of the reinsurer’s surplus were obtained for both time-dependent and stochastic cases. Finally, some numerical simulations were presented to study the effect of some sensitive parameters on the price process of the risky asset and also the behaviour of the reinsurer’s surpluses with time. It was observed that the price process of the risky asset is an increasing function of the expected rate of return and a decreasing function of the instantaneous volatilities while the surplus process does not necessarily depend on the expected rate of returns but on contribution rate and the number claims to be serviced at any given time.</p> Promise A. Azor, Edikan E. Akpanibah, Okechukwu I. Edozieunor Copyright (c) 2024 Journal and Author https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://www.journalcps.com/index.php/volumes/article/view/464 Fri, 29 Mar 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Isolation, Characterization and Antimycobacterial Potency of a Steroidal Derivative from the Chloroform Crude Extract of Icacina trichantha Oliv Tuber https://www.journalcps.com/index.php/volumes/article/view/461 <p><strong>Communication in Physical Sciences, 2024, 11(1):39-46</strong></p> <p><strong>Authors: Onyinyechi Uloma Akoh*, </strong><strong>Onuchi Marygem Mac-Kalunta, Stella Mbanyeaku Ufearoh, Ifeanyi Edozie Otuokere and Johnbull Onyekachi Echeme</strong></p> <p><strong><em>Received: 13 November 2023/Accepted: 28 February 2024</em></strong></p> <p>Literature has shown that the extract of Icacina trichantha is rich in various constituents, whose medicinal values have been confirmed. However, the major challenge is in the isolation of the component of interest. In this study, a steroidal derivative was isolated from the tubers of Icacina trichantha. The extraction was done using the cold maceration method, while further isolation and purification were carried out using column chromatography and thin-layer chromatography. Characterization was done using FT-IR, <sup>1</sup>HNMR, <sup>13</sup>CNMR, and COSY with literature which confirmed the isolated compound to be a steroidal derivative. The antimycobacterial activity was done on the isolated steroidal derivation, and the result obtained confirmed the speculation of its use for the treatment of “tough cough” by the locals. The findings from the study is remarkable in contributing information to phytochemistry.</p> Onyinyechi Uloma Akoh , Onuchi Marygem Mac-Kalunta, Stella Mbanyeaku Ufearoh, Ifeanyi Edozie Otuokere, Johnbull O. Echeme Copyright (c) 2024 Journal and Author https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://www.journalcps.com/index.php/volumes/article/view/461 Sat, 02 Mar 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Synthesis and characterization of Silicon Oxide Nanoparticles using Plantain Peel as a Precursor https://www.journalcps.com/index.php/volumes/article/view/459 <p><strong><em>Communication in Physical Sciences, 2024, 11(1):29-38</em></strong></p> <p><strong>Authors: Nsikak Bassey Essien, </strong><strong>Chukwu Obaji Daniel, Raphael, Mmenyene Paul and Ukeme Ekop</strong></p> <p><strong><em>Received: 14 July 2023/Accepted:28 &nbsp;February 2024</em></strong></p> <p>This study explores the synthesis and characterization of silicon oxide nanoparticles (SiONPs) using plantain peels as a sustainable precursor. SiONPs hold immense promise in various fields due to their exceptional attributes, and there is a growing need for eco-friendly synthesis methods. The research addresses this need by using agricultural waste materials, specifically plantain peels, as a renewable and cost-effective source for SiONP production. In the study, plantain peel samples were dried, ashed and converted to Si(OH)<sub>2</sub> after a series of reactions with HCl and NaOH respectively. The Si(OH)<sub>2</sub> obtained was calcined at 700 °C for two hours. The silicon oxide nanoparticles obtained were characterized with an ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometer, X-ray diffractometer and nitrogen adsorption study based on Brunaer-Emmett-Teller as well as other models. The results obtained showed that the XRD spectrum indicated a principal peak at 69, which was attributed to Si(111) or Si(40). The crystallite size of the silicon oxide nanoparticles obtained from the plantain peels was 0.23 nm while the evaluated particle size was 3.012 nm, confirming a mesoporous dimension. The absorption peaks obtained from the ultraviolet-visible analysis indicated a wavelength of maximum absorption at 342 nm and a corresponding bandgap of 3.6 eV. The materials are regarded as a highly porous semiconductors with unique potentials for environmental, optical, electrical and other applications. These results collectively highlight the eco-friendly synthesis and versatile applications of SiONPs, emphasizing their significance in advancing nanotechnology across diverse industries and scientific&nbsp;disciplines.</p> Nsikak Bassey Essien, Chukwu Obaji Daniel, Raphael Mmenyene Paul Copyright (c) https://www.journalcps.com/index.php/volumes/article/view/459 Sun, 24 Mar 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Combination-Difference Synchronization of Fractional Order Chaotic Duffing Oscillator and Financial Systems With Parameter Mismatch https://www.journalcps.com/index.php/volumes/article/view/456 <p><strong>Communication in Physical Sciences, 2024, 11(1):01-13</strong></p> <p><strong>Authors: Kayode Stephen Ojo</strong><strong><sup>,</sup></strong><strong><sup>∗</sup></strong><strong>, Moruf Busari, Abidemi Emmanuel Adeniji, Adebowale Babatunde Adeloye</strong></p> <p><strong><em>Received: 17 September 2023/Accepted: 26 January 2024</em></strong></p> <p>This research work is born out of the desire to design an effective synchronization scheme that could give a better understanding of the coordination of multiple processes and effective communication among various components of a complex system or between different groups of complex systems &nbsp;As a result, this research work presents combination-difference synchronization of fractional order chaotic (FOC) systems with parameter mismatches evolving from different initial conditions. Using the FOC Duffing oscillators and FOC financial systems as a paradigm, the backstepping technique is applied to design control laws for the achievement of combination-difference synchronization. These control laws enable the differences between the sums of the variables of the drive systems and differences of the variables of the response systems to converge to zero which confirms the achievement of combination difference synchronization. Numerical simulations provided confirm the effectiveness of the combination-difference synchronization technique. This result could be used to explain different interactions among particles and neurons of the same or different dynamical behaviour.</p> Kayode Stephen Ojo, Moruf Busari, Abidemi Emmanuel Adeniji, Adebowale Babatunde Adeloye Copyright (c) 2024 Journal and Author https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://www.journalcps.com/index.php/volumes/article/view/456 Tue, 30 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0000 A Note On The Proofs Of Cramer’s Formula https://www.journalcps.com/index.php/volumes/article/view/471 <p><strong>Communication in Physical Sciences, 2024, 11(1): 127-135</strong></p> <p><strong>Authors: Njoku, Kevin Ndubuisi Chikezie* and Okoli, Odilichukwu Christian.</strong></p> <p><strong><em>Received: 20 December 2023/Accepted: 28 February 2024</em></strong></p> <p>The work of Gabriel Cramer (1704-1752) that yielded the formula for solving an arbitrary number of unknown in a square linear system of equations has witnessed in the recent past, several methods of proofs regardless of the supposed high computational cost. It is our purpose in this research to proffer an alternative method of proof to Cramer’s formula for solving square linear system of equations</p> Njoku, Kevin Ndubuisi Chikezie, Okoli, Odilichukwu Christian Copyright (c) 2024 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://www.journalcps.com/index.php/volumes/article/view/471 Wed, 27 Mar 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Geology, Petrography and Geochemical Evaluation of Basement Rocks In Bakomba–Kabba Junction Area, Sheet 247 Lokoja SW, North Central, Nigeria https://www.journalcps.com/index.php/volumes/article/view/469 <p><strong>Communication in Physical Sciences, 2024, 11(1): 112-126</strong></p> <p><strong>Authors: Yomi &nbsp;Gideon and Felix </strong><strong>Bamidele</strong><strong> Fatoye</strong></p> <p><strong><em>Received: 20 December 2023/Accepted: 28 February 2024</em></strong></p> <p>Geologic mapping provides many types of imformation in the exploration for new mineral deposits, including the lithology, morphology, age relationships and structural information<strong>. </strong>Field geological mapping of basement rocks around the Bakomba-Kabba junction was carried out on a scale of 1:30,000 to establish the petrogenesis of rocks that underlain the area. The study area covers 30.80 km<sup>2</sup> and falls at the eastern flank of the southwestern Basement Complex of Nigeria. Migmatite, banded gneiss, aplite and charnockite rock types were encountered during the mapping exercise. Predominant trends of joints, veins and lineation are indicative of imprints of the Pan-African thermotectonic Orogeny. Five different representative rock samples were subjected to both petrographic and geochemical analyses. Migmatite is composed of 62.12 % quartz, 24.50 % potash-feldspar, 6.60 % biotite, 5.82 % muscovite and 0.96 % opaque. The banded gneiss near Zariagi has 51.83 % quartz, 21.65 % potash-feldspar, 18.90 % biotite, 4.88 % muscovite and 2.74 % myrmekite minerals; whereas, the banded gneiss close to Oyi-Apataoworo has 58.63 % quartz, 21.58 % plagioclase, 6.47 % biotite, 7.19 % muscovite and 2.88 % opaque minerals. The aplite is dominated by 57.40 % potash-feldspar and 23.14 % quartz, 6.10 % biotite, 5.25 % perthite, 5.38 % muscovite, while the charnockite consists of 50.00 % quartz, 25.26% pyroxene, 12.89 % biotite, 8.76 % plagioclase and 3.09 % opaque minerals. The geochemical composition of these rocks indicate 69.90 % SiO­<sub>2</sub>, 12.71 % Al<sub>2</sub>O<sub>3</sub>, 4.50 % Fe<sub>2</sub>O<sub>3</sub>, 0.48 % MgO, 6.62 % K<sub>2</sub>O, 3.09 % CaO, 1.32 % Na<sub>2</sub>O, 0.96 % TiO<sub>2</sub>, 0.07 % MnO and 0.34 % SO<sub>3</sub> on the average. Harker diagram indicated a high fractionation of mafic minerals in the rocks. Other discriminating diagrams revealed that all the rock types have igneous origin and crystallized from magmas that are strongly alkaline. However, the migmatite, aplite, and banded gneiss from Zariagi crystallized from the high-K alkaline magma series; the banded gneiss close to Oyi-Apataoworo originated from medium-K alkaline magma series; while the charnockite evolved from low-K alkaline series. This implied that rocks from the study area were derived from heterogeneous alkaline magma series.</p> <p><em>&nbsp;</em></p> Yomi B. Gideon, Felix B. Fatoye Copyright (c) 2024 Journal and Author https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://www.journalcps.com/index.php/volumes/article/view/469 Wed, 27 Mar 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Machine Learning in Thermochemistry: Unleashing Predictive Modelling for Enhanced Understanding of Chemical Systems https://www.journalcps.com/index.php/volumes/article/view/466 <p><strong>Communication in Physical Sciences, 2024, 11(1): 47-75</strong></p> <p><strong>Authors: Humphrey Sam Samuel, Emmanuel Edet Etim*, John Paul Shinggu. Bulus Bako </strong></p> <p><strong><em>Received: 23 December &nbsp;2023/Accepted: 18 March 2024 </em></strong></p> <p>Machine Learning (ML) has become a game-changing tool in many scientific sectors, altering research and spurring progress in a wide range of fields. The incorporation of ML approaches has created new predictive modelling opportunities in the context of thermochemistry, enabling more accurate and efficient prediction of the thermodynamic parameters of chemical systems. The article emphasizes the use of machine learning techniques in thermochemistry, highlighting the potential advantages and difficulties encountered in this quickly expanding field. The application of these algorithms helps in the prediction of fundamental thermodynamic quantities, including enthalpy, entropy, heat capacity, and free energy, allowing researchers to learn more about the energetics of chemical reactions and the stability of intricate molecular systems. The article also discusses openness, accountability, and the appropriate use of these formidable tools to ensure scientific integrity and prevent potential biases. These issues are related to the ethical problems linked with the application of ML in thermochemistry. As a result of the application of machine learning to thermochemistry research, a new era of predictive modelling has begun, offering a variety of opportunities to understand the intricate workings of chemical systems. ML provides enormous promise for expediting scientific discovery and improving our comprehension of thermodynamics in chemistry by eliminating obstacles and incorporating moral principles.</p> Humphrey Sam Samuel , Emmanuel Edet Etim, John Paul Shinggu, Bulus Bako Copyright (c) 2024 Journal and Author https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://www.journalcps.com/index.php/volumes/article/view/466 Fri, 29 Mar 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Status of Monitoring, Remediation and Regulation of Chemical Contaminants of Emerging Concern in Nigeria https://www.journalcps.com/index.php/volumes/article/view/463 <p><strong>Communication in Physical Sciences, 2024, 11(1): 160-177</strong></p> <p><strong>Authors: Jude Chidozie Nnaji and Moses Okeahialam Ekeoma</strong></p> <p><strong><em>Received: 05 December 2023/Accepted: 08 March 2024 </em></strong></p> <p>Contaminants of emerging concern (CECs) can be divided into chemical contaminants of emerging (CCECs) and microbial contaminants of emerging concern (MCECs). This review was to ascertain the current status of monitoring, remediation and regulation of chemical contaminants of emerging concern (CCECs) in Nigeria. Various publications were accessed through academic databases and search engines including DOAJ, AJOL, SpringerLink, ScienceDirect, Semanticsscholar, Google Scholar, Scopus and Research Gate to obtain literature relevant to the study. A total of 1476 works published between January 2017 and December 2023 were accessed and critically reviewed but only 173 publications were found suitable for use in assessing the subject matter. Seventeen national environmental policies, laws and regulations were also accessed from the websites of the national environmental regulatory agencies and higher education libraries. These were also assessed for information relevant to this study. The vast majority of the publications (163 out of 173) were in the area of CCECs monitoring while a paltry 10 publications (across 7 years) dealt with remediation of polluted matrices. 130 publications were research papers and most of them were studies on CCECs in solid matrices and water/wastewater samples. There is very low research effort on the remediation of CCECs in the Nigerian environment and policymakers seem to have little or no appreciation of CCECs and their potential impacts on the environment. Recommendations were made on future research efforts and how to create awareness and incorporate CCECs’ monitoring and remediation into Nigeria’s environmental laws.</p> Jude Chidozie Nnaji, Moses Okeahialam Ekeoma Copyright (c) 2024 Journal and Author https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://www.journalcps.com/index.php/volumes/article/view/463 Sat, 30 Mar 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Synthesis and characterization of Silicon Oxide Nanoparticles using Plantain Peel as a Precursor https://www.journalcps.com/index.php/volumes/article/view/460 <p><strong><em>Communication in Physical Sciences, 2024, 11(1):29-38</em></strong></p> <p><strong>Authors: Nsikak Bassey Essien, </strong><strong>Chukwu Obaji Daniel, Raphael, Mmenyene Paul and Ukeme Ekop</strong></p> <p><strong><em>Received: 14 July 2023/Accepted:28 &nbsp;February 2024 </em></strong></p> <p>This study explores the synthesis and characterization of silicon oxide nanoparticles (SiONPs) using plantain peels as a sustainable precursor. SiONPs hold immense promise in various fields due to their exceptional attributes, and there is a growing need for eco-friendly synthesis methods. The research addresses this need by using agricultural waste materials, specifically plantain peels, as a renewable and cost-effective source for SiONP production. In the study, plantain peel samples were dried, ashed and converted to Si(OH)<sub>2</sub> after a series of reactions with HCl and NaOH respectively. The Si(OH)<sub>2</sub> obtained was calcined at 700 °C for two hours. The silicon oxide nanoparticles obtained were characterized with an ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometer, X-ray diffractometer and nitrogen adsorption study based on Brunaer-Emmett-Teller as well as other models. The results obtained showed that the XRD spectrum indicated a principal peak at 69, which was attributed to Si(111) or Si(40). The crystallite size of the silicon oxide nanoparticles obtained from the plantain peels was 0.23 nm while the evaluated particle size was 3.012 nm, confirming a mesoporous dimension. The absorption peaks obtained from the ultraviolet-visible analysis indicated a wavelength of maximum absorption at 342 nm and a corresponding bandgap of 3.6 eV. The materials are regarded as a highly porous semiconductors with unique potentials for environmental, optical, electrical and other applications. These results collectively highlight the eco-friendly synthesis and versatile applications of SiONPs, emphasizing their significance in advancing nanotechnology across diverse industries and scientific&nbsp;disciplines.</p> Nsikak Bassey Essien, Chukwu Obaji Daniel, Raphael Mmenyene Paul Copyright (c) 2024 Journal and Author https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://www.journalcps.com/index.php/volumes/article/view/460 Wed, 06 Mar 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Effects of Annealing Temperature on the Dual Solution Synthesis and Optical Characterization of AlS: ZnS Thin Films https://www.journalcps.com/index.php/volumes/article/view/457 <p><strong>Communication in Physical Sciences, 2023, 10(3):20-28</strong></p> <p><strong>Authors: Elizabeth &nbsp;Chinyere Nwaokorongwu, Patricia Uchechi Kanayochi-Okpechi, Ugochukwu Joseph</strong></p> <p><strong><em>Received: 23 May 2023/Accepted: January 2024</em></strong></p> <p>SnS: ZnS alloyed thin films were successfully deposited on glass substrates using two solutions-based methods: SOLUTION GROWTH and technique at room temperature. Aluminium sulphate (AlSO<sub>4</sub>.7H<sub>2</sub>0) was the source of Al, Zinc sulphate (ZnSO<sub>4</sub>.7H<sub>2</sub>0) was the source of Zn, sodium thiosulphate (Na<sub>2</sub>S<sub>2</sub>S0<sub>3</sub>) served as the source of S. Ethylene DiamineTetraacetic Acid (EDTA) was used as the complexing agent. The effect of variations in annealing temperature was studied. The optical and solid state properties of the film like Reflectance (R), Absorbance(A), Transmittance (T), Refractive Index (n), Extinction Coefficient (K), Refractive index (n), Absorbance Spectra (A), and Transmittance Spectra T (%) were determined. These properties make AlS suitable for solar cell fabrication, and architectural design to reduce exposure to skin cancer, cataracts and impaired immune system due to UV rays. The band gap of the film suggested that the material is a semiconducting thin film. In recommendation, this material has high transmittance and is capable of absorbing UV rays, urgent development of this technology is recommended to lenses and mirror manufacturers.</p> Elizabeth Chinyere. Nwaokorongwu, Patricia Uchechi. Kanayochi-Okpechi, Ugochukwu Joseph Copyright (c) 2024 Journal and Author https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://www.journalcps.com/index.php/volumes/article/view/457 Fri, 16 Feb 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Phytochemical Screening and Anti-microbial Properties of Herbal Medicines used for Treatment of Typhoid and Bacterial/Viral Infection in Kaduna State https://www.journalcps.com/index.php/volumes/article/view/455 <p><strong>Communication in Physical Sciences, 2024, 11(1):14-19</strong></p> <p><strong>Authors: Ahmad Rufai Bala</strong><strong><sup>1</sup></strong><strong> and Abdullahi Sahal</strong></p> <p><strong><em>Received: 17 September 2023/Accepted: 26 January 2024</em></strong></p> <p>There are current trends in information flow between traditional and conventional medical sciences, especially in the applications of herbs for the treatment of some diseases. Given this challenge, the present study was designed to screen the phytochemicals and anti-microbial activities of herbal medicines commonly used for the treatment of typhoid and bacterial/viral infection in Kaduna state. Samples collected were dried and extracted by maceration using distilled water. The Phytochemical screening of the herbal extracts was carried out using the method described by Sofowora, (2008). Agar well diffusion and agar dilution methods were used for the anti-microbial analysis. The result of the phytochemical screening reveals the presence of some important phytochemicals; Tannin (17.78%), Glycoside (15.56%), Polyphenol (15.56%), Flavonoids (13.33%), Saponi</p> <p>n (13.33%), Terpenoid (8.89%), steroids (8.89%), alkaloids (6.67%) respectively. some of the herbal extracts showed a broad spectrum of anti-bacterial activities with zones of inhibition ranging from 14 &nbsp;– to 26 mm. The MIC and MBC values ranged from 80mg/ml to 100mg/ml respectively. The results of this research provide the baseline scientific proof that some herbal medicines with phytochemicals exert antimicrobial activities and hence justify the traditional use of some herbal medicines in the treatment of typhoid and infections.</p> Ahmad Rufai Bala, Abdullahi Sahal Copyright (c) 2024 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://www.journalcps.com/index.php/volumes/article/view/455 Tue, 30 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0000